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Over 400+ research and foundational articles have been reviewed to support the development of the ON TRAC model and tools.

The Canadian Pediatric Society has recognized that transition is a component of high-quality care. All stakeholders (youth, families, and pediatric, adult and community providers) face significant challenges with the preparation, transfer and continued management of this vulnerable population.  

background document (2011) highlighted transition as a significant concern to youth with CHC/Ds, impacted by many issues at the personal, clinical, and systems levels in BC.  Many organizations, including the Doctors of BC share this concern and are working to streamline care processes to improve health transitions for youth.

?Byron, P., Brophy, K., DeGroot, J., Paone, M. (2015, October). Youth engagement drives strategies for BC's ON TRAC Transition Initiative. Poster presented at the Canadian Association of Pediatric Health Centres (CAPHC) Annual Conference, Quebec City, Quebec.


Moynihan, M., Saewyc, E., Whitehouse, S., Paone M., & McPherson G. (2014). Assessing readiness for transition from paediatric to adult health care: Revision and psychometric evaluation of the Am I ON TRAC for Adult Care questionnaire. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71, 1324-1335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.12617

Moynihan, M., Saewyc, E., Whitehouse, S., Paone, M. & McPherson ,G. (2013). Evaluation of the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) in a younger adolescent population. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(2), S71-S72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.10.167


Paone, M., Whitehouse, S., Tucker, L., Macauley, M., Gyenes, M., McFee, E., Evans, D., Brophy, K., Gill, S., Smyth, M. (2014, October). Just TRAC it! Assessing a mobile-health (mhealth) intervention for youth 14-18 years of age with chronic health conditions and/or disabilities (CHC/Ds) to encourage engagement and readiness behaviors in their health care visits and planning for transition. Poster presented at the Canadian Association of Pediatric Health Centres (CAPHC) Annual Conference. Calgary, Alberta.


Paone, M., Wigle, M., & Saewyc, E. (2006).  The ON TRAC model for the transitional care of adolescents. Progress in Transplantation, 16(4), 291-302. https://doi.org/10.7182/prtr.16.4.6l055204763t62v7 


Paone, M., Whitehouse, S., & Stanford, D. (1998). Challenges of transition: Coping with a chronic health condition. British Columbia Medical Journal, 40(2), 73-5.


Whitehouse, S., Paone, M., Rabinovitz, S., Evans, D. (2014, September). ON TRAC – A collaborative initiative to address transition from grass roots engagement to health service policy. Poster presented at the 6th Annual Health Care Transition Research Consortium (HCTRC) Research Symposium. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.


Whitehouse, S., & Paone, M. (1998).  Patients in Transition: Bridging the gap from youth to adulthood. Contemporary Pediatrics, December, 13-16.

Arnett, J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–80. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.55.5.469 


Arnett, J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the Late Teens though the Twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.


Dovey-Pearce, G., Hurrell, R., May, C., Walker, C., & Doherty, Y. (2005). Young adults' (16-25 years) suggestions for providing developmentally-appropriate diabetes services: a qualitative study. Health and Social Care in the Community, 13(5), 409-419. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2005.00577.x 


Kaufman, M. (2006). Role of adolescent development in the transition process. Progress in Transplantation, 16(4), 286-290. https://doi.org/10.7182/prtr.16.4.m30738tw75164781 


Roisman, G., Masten, A.S., Coatsworth, J.D. & Tellegen, A. (2004). Salient and emerging developmental tasks in the transition to adulthood. Child Development, 75(1), 123-133. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00658.x 


Sawyer, S. & Aroni, R. (2005). Self-management in adolescents with chronic illness: What does it mean and how can it be achieved? Medical Journal of Australia, 183(8), 405-409.


Tonkin, R.S., Murphy, A., Lee, Z., Saewyc, E. & The McCreary Centre Society (2005). British Columbia youth health trends: A retrospective, 1992-2003. Vancouver, BC: The McCreary Centre Society.

Berwick D., Nolan T., & Whittington J. (2008). The Triple Aim: Care, Health, and Cost. Health Affairs, 27(3), 759–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.27.3.759


Busse, F., Heirmann, P., Galler, A., et al. (2007). Evaluation of patients' opinion and metabolic control after transfer of young adults with Type 1 diabetes from a pediatric diabetes clinic to adult care. Hormone Research, 67(3), 132-138.? http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000096583


Fair, C., Sullivan, K., & Gatto, A. (2011). Indicators of transition success for youth living with HIV: perspectives of pediatric and adult infectious disease care providers. AIDS Care, 23(8), 965-970. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2010.542449 


Freeman, M., Stewart, D., Schimmell, L., Burke-Gaffney, J., & Law, M. (2014). Development and evaluation of  the KIT: Keeping It Together? for youth to assist youth with disabilities in managing information. Child: Care, Health and Development, 41(2), 222-229.


Gravelle, A. M., Paone, M., Davidson, A. G., & Chilvers, M. A. (2014). Evaluation of a multidimensional Cystic Fibrosis transition program: A quality improvement initiative. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 30(1), 236-243. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.pedn.2014.06.011


Holmes-Walker, D. J., Llewellyn, A. C. & Farrell, K. (2007). A transition care programme which improves diabetes control and reduces hospital admission rates in young adults with type 1 diabetes aged 15-25 years. Diabetes Medicine, 24(7), 764-769. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02152.x 


Huang, J., Gottschalk, M., Pian, M., Dillon, L., Barajas, D., & Bartholomew, K. (2011). Transition to adult care: Systematic assessment of adolescents with chronic illnesses and their medical teams. Journal of Pediatrics, 159(6), 994-998. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.05.038 


Institute for Healthcare Improvement (2009). Plan, do, study, act (PDSA) improvement models. Retrieved from http://www.ihi.org/knowledge/Pages/HowtoImprove/default.aspx


Suris, J., & Akre, C. (2015). Key elements for and indicators of a successful transition: An international Delphi study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(6), 612-618. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.02.007


Kovacs, A., Cullen-Dean, G., Aiello, S., Wasyliw, C., Harrison, J., Qunyu, L., & Oechslin, E. (2012). The Toronto congenital heart disease transition task force. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology, 34(1), 21-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppedcard.2012.05.005


Lotstein, D., McPherson, M., Strickland, B., & Newacheck, P. (2005). Transition planning for youth with special health care needs: Results from the national survey of children with special health care needs. Pediatrics, 115(6), 1562-1568. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-1262 


McDonagh,J. E, Southwood, T. R., & Shaw, K. L. (2006). Growing up and moving on in rheumatology: Development and preliminary evaluation of a transitional care programme for a multicentre cohort of adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Journal of Child Health Care, 10(1), 22-42. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367493506060203 


McLaughlin, S. E., Diener-West, M., Indurkhya, A., Rubin, H., Heckmann, R., & Boyle, M. P. (2008). Improving transition from pediatric to adult Cystic Fibrosis care: Lessons from a national survey of current practices. Pediatrics, 121(5), 1160-1166. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-2217 


Robertson, L. P., McDonagh, J. E., Southwood, T. R. & Shaw, K. L. (2006). Growing up and moving on: A multi-centre UK audit of the transfer of adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis from pediatric to adult centred care. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, 65(1), 74-80. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.2004.032292 


van Staa, A., Sattoe, J., & Strating, M. (2015). Experiences with and outcomes of two interventions to maximize engagement of chronically ill adolescents during hospital consultations: A mixed methods study. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 30(5), 757-775. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2015.05.028 

Anthony, S., Kaufman, M., Drabble, A., et al. (2009). Perceptions of transitional care needs and experiences in pediatric heart transplant recipients. American Journal of Transplantation, 9(3), 614-9. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02515.x


Brumfeild, K., & Lansbury, G. (2004). Experiences of adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis during their transition from pediatric to adult health care: A qualitative study of young Australian adults. Disability & Rehabilitation, 26(4), 223-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638280310001644924 


Gray, W., Resmini, A. & Baker, M. (2015). Concerns, barriers and recommendations to improve transition from pediatric to adult IBD care: Perspectives of patients, parents and health professionals. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 21(7), 1641-1651. https://doi.org/10.1097/mib.0000000000000419 


Heery, E., Sheehan, A. M., While, A. E., & Coyne, I. (2015). Experiences and outcomes of transition from pediatric to adult health care services for young people with congenital heart disease: A systematic review. Congenital Heart Disease, 10(5), 413-427. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/chd.12251


Lugasi, T., Archille, M., & Stevenson, M. (2011). Patients' perspective on factors that facilitate transition from child-centered to adult-centered health care: A theory integrated metasummary of quantitative and qualitative studies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(5), 429-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.10.016


Miller, A. R., Condin, C. J., McKellin, W. H., Shaw, N., Klassen, A. F.,& Sheps, S. (2009). Continuity of care for children with complex chronic health conditions: parents' perspectives. BMC Health Services Research, 9(242). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-9-242


Reiss, J. G., Gibson, R. W.  & Walker, L. R. (2005). Health care transition: youth, family and provider perspectives. Pediatrics, 115(1), 112-120. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-1321 


Rutishauser, C., Akré, C., & Surìs, J. (2011). Transition from pediatric to adult health care: expectations of adolescents with chronic disorders and their parents. European Journal of Pediatrics, 170(7), 865-871. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-010-1364-7 


Shaw, K. L., Southwood, T. R. & McDonagh, J. E. (2004). User perspectives of transitional care for adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.  Rheumatology, 43(6), 770-778. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keh175 


Shaw, K., Southwood, T., & McDonagh, J. (2006). Young people's satisfaction of transitional care in adolescent rheumatology in the UK. Child: Care, Health & Development, 33(4), 368-79. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00698.x 


Sheehan, A. M., While, A. E. & Coyne, I.  (2015). The experiences and impact of transition from child to adult healthcare services for young people with type 1 diabetes: A systematic review. Diabetic Medicine, 32(4), 440-458. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.12639 


Tuchman, L., Slap, G. B., & Britto, M. T. (2008). Transition to adult care: Experiences and expectations of adolescents with a chronic illness. Child Care Health Development, 34(5), 557-563. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2008.00844.x 


Alberta Children & Youth Initiative (2007). Transition planning protocol for youth with disabilities: your guide to reaching new heights. Retrieved from http://www.adhdfamilies.ca/sites/default/files/resources/pdf/transitionplanningprotocol1_3.pdf

American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Society of Internal Medicine (2002). A consensus statement on health care transitions for young adults with special health care needs. Pediatrics, 110(Supplement 3), 1304-06. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/110/Supplement_3/1304.full.pdf 

American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Children with Disabilities (2005). Care coordination in the medical home: Integrating health and related systems of care for children with special health care needs. Pediatrics, 116(5), 1238-44. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-2070 


American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Physicians, and American College of Physicians (2011). Supporting the health care Transition from adolescence to adulthood in the Medical Home. Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 128(1), 182-202. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-0969 


Baldassano, R., Ferry, G., Griffiths, A., Mack, D., Markowitz, J., & Winter, H. (2002). Medical position statement: Transition of the patient with inflammatory bowel disease from pediatric to adult care: Recommendations of the North American society for pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 34(3), 245-248. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200203000-00001 


Betz, C., Ferris, M., Woodward, J., Okumara J., Jan, S., & Wood, D. (2014). The health care transition research consortium health care transition model: A framework for research and practice. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 7(1), 3-15. https://doi.org/10.3233/PRM-140277


Blum, R. W., Hirsch, D., Kastner, T. A., Quint, R. D. & Sandler, A. D. (2002). A consensus statement on health care transitions for young people with special care needs. Pediatrics, 110(Supplement 3), 1304-1306.


BC Children's Hospital (2015). Transition Clinical Practice Guideline. Vancouver, B.C. http:/170/health-professionals/clinical-resources/transition-to-adult-care


British Columbia Medical Association (2012). Closing the Gap: Youth Transitioning to Adult Care in BC. Retrieved from https://www.doctorsofbc.ca/sites/default/files/1984-bcma_youth_transitions.web_.pdf  


British Columbia Ministries (2008). Children and youth with special needs (CYSN): Framework for action. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Health Services, Ministry of Education, and Ministry of Children and Family Development. Retrieved from http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/family-and-social-supports/children-teens-with-special-needs/framework_for_action.pdf


British Columbia Government (2009). Cross Ministry Transitional Planning Protocol for Youth with Special Needs.  Retrieved from http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/family-and-social-supports/children-teens-with-special-needs/2012_ytpp_protocol.pdf


Canadian Association of Pediatric Health Centres, National Transitions Community of Practice (2016). CAPHC Guideline for Transition from Pediatric to Adult Health Care for Youth with Special Health Care needs: A National Approach. Retrieved from http://ken.caphc.org/xwiki/bin/view/Transitioning+from+Paediatric+to+Adult+Care/A+Guideline+for+Transition+from+Paediatric+to+Adult+Care  


Canadian Pediatric Society (2016). Care of adolescents with chronic illness: Position statement. Pediatric Child Health, 11(1): 43-38. Retrieved from http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/care-of-youth-chronic-conditions.  


Canadian Pediatric Society; Adolescent Health Committee (2016). Transition to adult care for youth with special health care needs: Position statement. Pediatric Child Health, 12(9), 785-788. Retrieved from http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/transition-youth-special-needs


Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Centre (2008). Best evidence statement. Readiness for Transition to adult Care: Pediatric Kidney Transplant Patients. Cincinnati (OH): Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.


Leung, Y., Heyman, I., & Mahadevan, U. (2011). Transitioning the adolescent inflammatory bowel disease patient: Guidelines for the adult and pediatric gastroenterologist. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 17(10), 2169-2173. https://doi.org/10.1002/ibd.21576


McDougall, L., Wright, V., et al. (2011). Applying the ICF framework to study quality of life for youth with chronic conditions. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 14(1), 41-53. https://doi.org/10.3109/17518423.2010.521795


McManus, M., White, P., et al. (2015). Pediatric to Adult transition: Quality improvement model for primary care. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(1), 73-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.08.006


New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute (2011). Transitioning HIV-Infected adolescents into adult care. Retrieved from http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=34973&search=transition+hiv


Nguyen, T. & Gorter J. (2013). Use of the international classification of functioning, disability and health as a framework for transition from pediatric to adult healthcare.  Child: Care, Health and Development, 40(6), 759-761. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12125 


Peters, A., Laffel, L., et al. (2011). Diabetes care for emerging adults: recommendations for transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care systems. Position Statement of the Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 34(11), 2477-2485. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-1723 


Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (2014). Care Transitions: Clinical Best Practice Guidelines. Toronto, Canada. Retrieved from http://rnao.ca/sites/rnao-ca/files/Care_Transitions_BPG.pdf


Royal College of Nursing (2004). Adolescent transition care: Guidelines for nursing staff. London: Royal College of Nursing. United Kingdom. Retrieved from https://www.rcn.org.uk/professional-development/publications/pub-004510


Sable, C., Foster, E., Uzark, K., Bjornsen, K., Canobbio, M.. et al. (2011). Best practice in managing transition to adulthood for adolescents with congenital heart disease: The transition process and medical and psychosocial issues: a scientific statement from the American heart association. Circulation, 123(13), 1454-1485. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182107c56


Society for Adolescent Medicine, Rosen, D. S., Blum, R. W., Britto, M., Sawyer, S. M. & Seigel, D. M. (2003). Position paper. Transition to adult health care for adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions. Journal of Adolescent Health, 33(4), 309-11.


Stewart, D., Freeman, M., Law, M., Healy, H., Burke-Gaffrey, J., Forhan, M., Young, N.L., & Guenther, S. (2009). The best journey to adult life for youth with disabilities: An evidence-based model and best practice guidelines for the transition to adulthood for youth with disabilities. Ontario: CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research. Retrieved from



Tuchman, L., Schwartz, l., Sawicki, G., & Britto, M. (2010). State of the art review: Cystic fibrosis and transition to medical care. Pediatrics, 125(3), 566-573. 

UK Department of Health (2006). "Transition: Getting it right for young people" - Improving transition of young people with long-term conditions from children's to adult health services. London: Department of Health, Child Health and Maternity Services Branch. 

Berwick, D., Nolan T. & Whittington J. (2008). The triple aim: Care, health, and cost. Health Affairs, 27(3), 759–69. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.27.3.759

Hamdanni, Y., Jetha, A., & Norman, C. (2011). Systems thinking perspectives applied to healthcare transition for youth with disabilities: A paradigm shift for practice, policy and research. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(6); 806-814. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01313.x 

Hepburn, C., Cohen, E., Bhawra, J., Weiser, N., Hayeems, R., & Guttman, A. (2015). Health systems strategies supporting transition to adult care. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 100(6), 559-564. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2014-307320 

Institute for Healthcare Improvement (2009). The triple aim: Optimizing health, care and cost. American College of Healthcare Executive, 24(1), 64-66.

Prior, M., McManus, M., White, P. & Davidson, L. (2014). Measuring the triple aim in transition care: a systematic review. Pediatrics, 134(6), e1648-e1661. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-1704 

?Betz, C. L. (2004). Adolescents in transition to adult care: Why the concern. Nursing Clinics of North America, 39(4), 681-713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2004.07.008


Canadian Association of Pediatric Health Centres, National Transitions Community of Practice (2016). CAPHC Guideline for Transition from Pediatric to Adult Health Care for Youth with Special Health Care needs: A National Approach - Reference list for guideline evidence tables. Retrieved from http://ken.caphc.org/xwiki/bin/download/Transitioning+from+Paediatric+to+Adult+Care/A+Guideline+for+Transition+from+Paediatric+to+Adult+Care/Appendix%203%20Reference%20List%20for%20Evidence%20Table%20and%20Recommendations.pdf


Camfield, P., and Camfield, C. (2011). Transition to adult care for children with chronic neurological disorders. Annals of Neurology, 69(3), 437-444. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.22393


Crowley, R., Wolfe, I., Lock, K., & McKee, M. (2011). Improving the transition between paediatric and adult healthcare: A systematic review. Archives of Disabled Child Education, 96(6), 548-553. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2010.202473 


Greenley, R., Nebel, J., Raboin, T., Li, S., & Simpson, P. (2010). A meta-analytic review of the psychosocial adjustment of youth with inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(8), 857-869. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsp120 


Towns, S. J. & Bell, S. C. (2011). Transition of adolescents with cystic fibrosis from paediatric to adult care. The Clinical Respiratory Journal. 5(2), 64-75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-699x.2010.00226.x 


While, A., Forbes, A., Ullman, R., Lewis, S. Mathes, L., & Griffiths, P. (2004). Good practices that address continuity during transition from child to adult care: Synthesis of the evidence. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(5), 439-452. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2004.00440.x 

American College of Physicians (2005). The advanced medical home: A patient-centered, physician-guided model of health care. Position Paper. Philadelphia, PA. Retrieved from www.acpoline.org/hpp/adv_med.pdf


American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Children with Disabilities (2005). Care coordination in the medical home: Integrating health and related systems of care for children with special health care needs. Pediatrics, 116(5), 1238-44. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-2070 


American College of Physicians (2010). The patient-centered medical home neighbor: The interface of the patient-centered medical home with specialty/subspecialty practices. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians. https://doi.org/10.2169/naika.104.1006 

College of Family Physicians of Canada. (2011). A vision for Canada: Family practice. The Patient's Medical Home. Retrieved from http://www.cfpc.ca/uploadedFiles/Resources/Resource_Items/PMH_A_Vision_for_Canada_abridged.pdf


Davidson, S. & Capelli, M. (2011). We've got growing up to do. Ontario Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health. Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.excellenceforchildandyouth.ca/sites/default/files/policy_growing_up_to_do.pdf


Paul, M., Street, C., Wheeler, N. & Singh, S. (2015). Transition to adult services for young people with mental health needs: A systematic review. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 20(3) 436-457. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104514526603 


Capelli, M., MacDonald, N. E., & McGrath,P J. (1989). Assessment of readiness for transfer to adult care for adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Children's Health Care, 18(4), 218-24. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326888chc1804_4


Dudman, L., Rapley, P., & Wilson, S. (2011). Development of a transition readiness scale for young adults with cystic fibrosis: face and content validity. Neonatal, Paediatric, and Child Health Nursing14(2), 9–13.


Ferris, M., Harward, D., Bickford, K., Layton, J., Ferris, M., Hogan, S., & Hooper, S. (2012). A clinical tool to measure the components of health-care transition from pediatric care to adult care: The UNC TRxANSITION Scale. Renal Failure, 34(6), 744–753. https://doi.org/10.3109/0886022X.2012.678171


Fredericks, E., Dore-Stites, D., Wells, A., et al. (2010). Assessment of transition readiness skills and adherence in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Pediatric Transplants14(8), 944-53. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3046.2010.01349.x


Klassen, A., Grant, C., Barr, R., Brill, H., Samaan, M., et al. (2014). Development and validation of a generic scale for use in transition programs to measure self-management skills in adolescents with chronic conditions: The TRANSITION-Q.  Child: Care, Health and Development, 41(4), 547-562. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12207


Moynihan, M.,  Saewyc, E.,  Whitehouse, S., Paone, M. & McPherson, G. (2015). Assessing readiness for transition from pediatric to adult health care: Revision and psychometric evaluation of the Am I ON TRAC for adult care questionnaire. Journal of Advanced Nursing71(6), 1324-1335. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12617

Moynihan, M., Saewyc, E., Whitehouse, S., Paone, M., & McPherson G. (2013). Evaluation of the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) in a younger adolescent population. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(2)S71-S72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.10.167


Sawicki, G. S., Lukens-Bull, K., Yin, X., Demars, N., Huang, C., Livingwood, W., Reiss, J., & Wood, D. (2009). Measuring the transition readiness of youth with special health care needs: validation of the TRAQ – transition readiness assessment questionnaire. Journal of Pediatric Psychology36(2), 160-171. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsp128 


Schwartz, L., Tuchman, L., Hobbie, W. & Ginsberg, J. (2011). A socio-ecological model of readiness for transition to adult-oriented care for adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(6), 883-95. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01282.x 


Schwartz, l., Daniel, L., Brumley, L., Barakat, L., Wesley, K. & Tuchman, L. (2014). Measures of readiness to transition to adult health care for youth with chronic physical health conditions: a systematic review and recommendations for measurement testing and development. Journal of Pediatric Psychology39(6), 588-601. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsu028 


Stinson, J., Kohut, S., Spiegel, L., White, M., Gill, N., Colbourne, G., & Kaufman, M. (2013). A systematic review of transition readiness and transfer satisfaction measures for adolescents with chronic illness. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 26(2), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2013-0512 


Swinton J., Kohut S., et al. (2014). A systematic review of transition readiness and transfer satisfaction measures for adolescents with chronic illness. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 26(2), 159-174. tỉ lệ kèo bóng đá trực tuyến https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2013-0512 


Weiner, L., Zobel, M., Battles, H., & Ryder, C. (2007). Transition from a pediatric HIV intramural clinic research program to adolescent and adult community-based care services: Assessing transition readiness. Social Work in Health Care, 46(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1300/J010v46n02_01


Williams, T.S., Sherman, E., Dunseith, C., Mah, J.K., Blackman, M., Latter, J., Mohamed, I., Slick, D.J. & Thornton, N. (2010). Measurement of medical self-management and transition readiness among Canadian adolescents with special health care needs. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health3(4), 1-9.

Colver, A., Merrick, H., Deverill, M., Le Couteur, A., Parr, J., Pearce, M., Rapley, T., Vale, L., Watson, R., McConachie, H. on behalf of the Transition Collaborative Group (2013). Study protocol: Longitudinal study of the transition of young people with complex health needs from child to adult health services. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 675. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-675


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Cincinnati Adolescent and Transition Medicine


Good to Go Program - The Hospital for Sick Children


ON TRAC - Transitioning Responsibly to Adult Care - BC Children's Hospital


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